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A to Z Dieases

  • BSE ('Mad Cow Disease') and nvCJD
  • “Mad Cow Disease” actually refers to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a disease first described in 1996 - in cattle, which is related to a disease in humans called variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Both disorders are fatal brain diseases caused by a prion - a protein particle that lacks nucleic acid and is believed to be the cause of various infectious diseases of the nervous system.
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  • Back and Neck Pain
  • Low back pain can range from mild, dull, annoying pain, to persistent, severe, disabling pain in the lower back. Pain in the lower back can restrict mobility and interfere with normal functioning. Neck pain is pain that occurs in the area of the seven cervical vertebrae in the neck area. Because of its location and range of motion, the neck is often left unprotected and subject to injury.
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  • Baldness (Alopecia)
  • Baldness, also known as alopecia, is hair loss, or absence of hair.
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  • Barrett's Esophagus
  • Barrett's esophagus is a condition in which normal cells that line the esophagus, called squamous cells, turn into cells not usually found in humans, called specialized columnar cells. Damage to the lining of the esophagus causes the cells to change. Less than 1 percent of people with this condition develop cancer of the esophagus. However, having Barrett's esohagus may increase the risk of developing esophageal cancer.
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  • Basal Cell Carcinoma
  • Basal cell cancer, sometimes called non-melanoma skin cancer, usually appears as a small, fleshy bump or nodule on the head, neck, or hands. Occasionally, these nodules appear on the trunk of the body, usually as flat growths.
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  • Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome)
  • Basal cell nevus syndrome is caused by a tumor suppressor gene, called PTCH, located on chromosome 9. Mutations in this gene may increase the risk of ovarian cancer.
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  • Bell's Palsy
  • Bell's palsy is an unexplained episode of facial muscle weakness or paralysis that begins suddenly and worsens over three to five days. This condition results from damage to the 7th (facial) cranial nerve, and pain and discomfort usually occurs on one side of the face or head.
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  • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
  • BPH (also referred to as benign prostatic hypertrophy) is a condition in which the prostate gland becomes very enlarged and may cause problems associated with urination.
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  • Beta Thalassemia (Cooley's Anemia)
  • Beta thalassemia is caused by mutations in the beta chain of the hemoglobin molecule. There are two types of Beta Thalassemia: beta thalassemia major (Cooley’s anemia) - both (two) beta chain genes have deletions, causing the most severe type of beta thalassemia. Thalassemia major patients need frequent blood transfusions and may not survive a normal lifespan. During the first one to two years of life, they can be pale, fussy, have a poor appetite, and have many infections. Without treatment, the spleen, liver, and heart become enlarged, and bones can become thin and brittle. A major problem is the build up of iron in the heart and other organs, resulting in heart failure for some patients in their teens or early 20s. halassemia minor or thalassemia trait - one beta gene has a deletion, resulting in anemia. Thalassemia minor is further divided into:thalassemia minima - person has few or no symptoms.thalassemia intermedia - person has moderate to severe anemia.
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  • Biliary Cirrhosis / Bile Duct Cancer
  • Biliary cirrhosis is a rare form of liver cirrhosis, caused by disease or defects of the bile ducts. Symptoms usually include cholestasis (accumulation of bile in the liver). There are two types of biliary cirrhosis:primary biliary cirrhosis - inflammation and destruction of bile ducts in the liver.secondary biliary cirrhosis - results from prolonged bile duct obstruction or narrowing or closure of the bile duct.
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  • Binge Eating Disorder
  • Binge eating disorder is an illness that resembles bulimia nervosa and is characterized by episodes of uncontrolled eating or bingeing.
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  • Bruxism
  • Bruxism is the term that refers to an incessant grinding and clenching of the teeth, unintentionally, and at inappropriate times.
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  • Bulimia Nervosa
  • Bulimia nervosa, usually referred to as bulimia, is defined as uncontrolled episodes of overeating (bingeing) and usually followed by purging (self-induced vomiting), misuse of laxatives, enemas, or medications that cause increased production of urine, fasting, or excessive exercise to control weight.
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  • Bladder Cancer
  • Bladder cancer occurs when there are abnormal, cancerous cells growing in the bladder.
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  • Bleeding / Clotting Disorders
  • Abnormalities in platelets, the coagulation factors that regulate fibrin formation, or defects in the blood vessels themselves, can lead to excessive bleeding. Similarly, excess clotting can cause problems by obstructing veins and arteries (thrombosis). Listed in the directory below, you will find additional information regarding three different types of coagulation disorders, for which we have provided a brief overview.
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  • Brain Tumors
  • A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. The tumor can either originate in the brain itself, or come from another part of the body and travel to the brain (metastasize). Brain tumors may be classified as either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), depending on their behavior.
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  • Breast Infections and Inflammations
  • The most common type of breast infection is lactational mastitis. With this condition, which occurs when a woman is breastfeeding, the nipples become cracked and sore, allowing bacteria from the baby's mouth to enter the ducts and rapidly multiply in the milk. Occasionally, infection also arises from a blocked milk duct. In both cases, the breast becomes hard, reddened, hot, and painful. Nonlactational mastitis is similar to lactational mastitis but occurs in nonlactating women.
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  • Behavior Disorders
  • Behavior disorders include mental health problems with a focus on behaviors that both identify emotional problems and create interpersonal and social problems for children and adolescents in the course of their development.
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  • Behavior Disorders
  • Behavior disorders include mental health problems with a focus on behaviors that both identify emotional problems and create interpersonal and social problems for children and adolescents in the course of their development.
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